Epidemiologic and animal studies implicate overconsumption of fructose in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying fructose-induced chronic liver diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we have presented evidence supporting the essential function of the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element–binding protein (ChREBP) in mediating adaptive responses to fructose and protecting against fructose-induced hepatotoxicity. In WT mice, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) activated hepatic lipogenesis in a ChREBP-dependent manner; however, in Chrebp-KO mice, a HFrD induced steatohepatitis. In Chrebp-KO mouse livers, a HFrD reduced levels of molecular chaperones and activated the C/EBP homologous protein–dependent (CHOP-dependent) unfolded protein response, whereas administration of a chemical chaperone or Chop shRNA rescued liver injury. Elevated expression levels of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in HFrD-fed Chrebp-KO livers were paralleled by an increased nuclear abundance of sterol regulatory element–binding protein 2 (SREBP2). Atorvastatin-mediated inhibition of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis or depletion of hepatic Srebp2 reversed fructose-induced liver injury in Chrebp-KO mice. Mechanistically, we determined that ChREBP binds to nuclear SREBP2 to promote its ubiquitination and destabilization in cultured cells. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that ChREBP provides hepatoprotection against a HFrD by preventing overactivation of cholesterol biosynthesis and the subsequent CHOP-mediated, proapoptotic unfolded protein response. Our findings also identified a role for ChREBP in regulating SREBP2-dependent cholesterol metabolism.
Deqiang Q. Zhang, Xin Tong, Kyle VanDommelen, Neil Gupta, Kenneth Stamper, Graham F. Brady, Zhuoxian Meng, Jiandie D. Lin, Liangyou Y. Rui, M. Bishr Omary, Lei Yin
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). First, we found that ArcN NPY/AgRP fibers closely appose PVN and DMH presympathetic neurons. Second, nanoinjections of NPY or an NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) antagonist into PVN or DMH decreased or increased SSNA, respectively. Third, blockade of DMH NPY1R reversed the sympathoinhibition elicited by selective, DREADD-mediated activation of ArcN NPY/AgRP neurons. Finally, stimulation of ArcN NPY/AgRP terminal fields in the PVN and DMH decreased SSNA. Considering that chronic obesity decreases ArcN NPY content, we propose that the ArcN NPY neuropathway to the PVN and DMH is pivotal in obesity-induced elevations in SNA.
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J. Madden, Virginia L. Brooks
Somatostatin secreted by pancreatic δ cells mediates important paracrine interactions in Langerhans islets, including maintenance of glucose metabolism through the control of reciprocal insulin and glucagon secretion. Disruption of this circuit contributes to the development of diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms that control somatostatin secretion from islets remain elusive. Here, we found that a super-complex comprising the cullin 4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) epigenetically regulates somatostatin secretion in islets. Constitutive ablation of CUL4B, the core component of the CRL4B-PRC2 complex, in δ cells impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion through enhanced somatostatin release. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that the CRL4B-PRC2 complex, under the control of the δ cell–specific transcription factor hematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX), determines the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP through histone posttranslational modifications, thereby altering expression of the Cav1.2 calcium channel and adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) and modulating somatostatin secretion. In response to high glucose levels or urocortin 3 (UCN3) stimulation, increased expression of cullin 4B (CUL4B) and the PRC2 subunit histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 and reciprocal decreases in Cav1.2 and AC6 expression were found to regulate somatostatin secretion. Our results reveal an epigenetic regulatory mechanism of δ cell paracrine interactions in which CRL4B-PRC2 complexes, Cav1.2, and AC6 expression fine-tune somatostatin secretion and facilitate glucose homeostasis in pancreatic islets.
Qing Li, Min Cui, Fan Yang, Na Li, Baichun Jiang, Zhen Yu, Daolai Zhang, Yijing Wang, Xibin Zhu, Huili Hu, Pei-Shan Li, Shang-Lei Ning, Si Wang, Haibo Qi, Hechen Song, Dongfang He, Amy Lin, Jingjing Zhang, Feng Liu, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao, Fan Yi, Tian Xue, Jin-Peng Sun, Yaoqin Gong, Xiao Yu
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at high risk for reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and development of herpes zoster (HZ). Here, we found that macrophages from patients with CAD actively suppress T cell activation and expansion, leading to defective VZV-specific T cell immunity. Monocyte-derived and plaque-infiltrating macrophages from patients with CAD spontaneously expressed high surface density of the immunoinhibitory ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), thereby providing negative signals to programmed death-1+ (PD-1+) T cells. We determined that aberrant PD-L1 expression in patient-derived macrophages was metabolically controlled. Oversupply of the glycolytic intermediate pyruvate in mitochondria from CAD macrophages promoted expression of PD-L1 via induction of the bone morphogenetic protein 4/phosphorylated SMAD1/5/IFN regulatory factor 1 (BMP4/p-SMAD1/5/IRF1) signaling pathway. Thus, CAD macrophages respond to nutrient excess by activating the immunoinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint, leading to impaired T cell immunity. This finding indicates that metabolite-based immunotherapy may be a potential strategy for restoring adaptive immunity in CAD.
Ryu Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Hong Namkoong, Hui Zhang, Gerald J. Berry, Barbara B. Wallis, Benedikt Schaefgen, David G. Harrison, Jennifer A. Tremmel, John C. Giacomini, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
Tumor recurrence is the leading cause of breast cancer–related death. Recurrences are largely driven by cancer cells that survive therapeutic intervention. This poorly understood population is referred to as minimal residual disease. Here, using mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human disease together with organoid cultures, we have demonstrated that residual cells acquire a transcriptionally distinct state from normal epithelium and primary tumors. Gene expression changes and functional characterization revealed altered lipid metabolism and elevated ROS as hallmarks of the cells that survive tumor regression. These residual cells exhibited increased oxidative DNA damage, potentiating the acquisition of somatic mutations during hormonal-induced expansion of the mammary cell population. Inhibition of either cellular fatty acid synthesis or fatty acid transport into mitochondria reduced cellular ROS levels and DNA damage, linking these features to lipid metabolism. Direct perturbation of these hallmarks in vivo, either by scavenging ROS or by halting the cyclic mammary cell population expansion, attenuated tumor recurrence. Finally, these observations were mirrored in transcriptomic and histological signatures of residual cancer cells from neoadjuvant-treated breast cancer patients. These results highlight the potential of lipid metabolism and ROS as therapeutic targets for reducing tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients.
Kristina M. Havas, Vladislava Milchevskaya, Ksenija Radic, Ashna Alladin, Eleni Kafkia, Marta Garcia, Jens Stolte, Bernd Klaus, Nicole Rotmensz, Toby J. Gibson, Barbara Burwinkel, Andreas Schneeweiss, Giancarlo Pruneri, Kiran R. Patil, Rocio Sotillo, Martin Jechlinger
Genetic variants at the solute carrier family 39 member 8 (
Wen Lin, David R. Vann, Paschalis-Thomas Doulias, Tao Wang, Gavin Landesberg, Xueli Li, Emanuela Ricciotti, Rosario Scalia, Miao He, Nicholas J. Hand, Daniel J. Rader
Glucocorticoid steroids such as prednisone are prescribed for chronic muscle conditions
such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, where their use is associated with prolonged
ambulation. The positive effects of chronic steroid treatment in muscular dystrophy are
paradoxical because these steroids are also known to trigger muscle atrophy. Chronic
steroid use usually involves once-daily dosing, although weekly dosing in children has
been suggested for its reduced side effects on behavior. In this work, we tested steroid
dosing in mice and found that a single pulse of glucocorticoid steroids improved
sarcolemmal repair through increased expression of annexins A1 and A6, which mediate
myofiber repair. This increased expression was dependent on glucocorticoid response
elements upstream of annexins and was reinforced by the expression of forkhead box O1
(FOXO1). We compared weekly versus daily steroid treatment in mouse models of acute muscle
injury and in muscular dystrophy and determined that both regimens provided comparable
benefits in terms of annexin gene expression and muscle repair. However, daily dosing
activated atrophic pathways, including F-box protein 32 (
Mattia Quattrocelli, David Y. Barefield, James L. Warner, Andy H. Vo, Michele Hadhazy, Judy U. Earley, Alexis R. Demonbreun, Elizabeth M. McNally
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N. Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C. Luft, Jens Titze
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter–driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions.
Kento Kitada, Steffen Daub, Yahua Zhang, Janet D. Klein, Daisuke Nakano, Tetyana Pedchenko, Louise Lantier, Lauren M. LaRocque, Adriana Marton, Patrick Neubert, Agnes Schröder, Natalia Rakova, Jonathan Jantsch, Anna E. Dikalova, Sergey I. Dikalov, David G. Harrison, Dominik N. Müller, Akira Nishiyama, Manfred Rauh, Raymond C. Harris, Friedrich C. Luft, David H. Wassermann, Jeff M. Sands, Jens Titze
Cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose and glutamine, which provide macromolecules and antioxidants that sustain rapid cell division. Metabolic reprogramming in cancer drives an increased glycolytic rate that supports maximal production of these nutrients. The folate cycle, through transfer of a carbon unit between tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, produces other metabolites that are essential for cell growth, including nucleotides, methionine, and the antioxidant NADPH. Here, using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a cancer model, we have observed a reduction in growth rate upon withdrawal of folate. We found that an enzyme in the folate cycle, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1–like (MTHFD1L), plays an essential role in support of cancer growth. We determined that MTHFD1L is transcriptionally activated by NRF2, a master regulator of redox homeostasis. Our observations further suggest that MTHFD1L contributes to the production and accumulation of NADPH to levels that are sufficient to combat oxidative stress in cancer cells. The elevation of oxidative stress through MTHFD1L knockdown or the use of methotrexate, an antifolate drug, sensitizes cancer cells to sorafenib, a targeted therapy for HCC. Taken together, our study identifies MTHFD1L in the folate cycle as an important metabolic pathway in cancer cells with the potential for therapeutic targeting.
Derek Lee, Iris Ming-Jing Xu, David Kung-Chun Chiu, Robin Kit-Ho Lai, Aki Pui-Wah Tse, Lynna Lan Li, Cheuk-Ting Law, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Larry Lai Wei, Cerise Yuen-Ki Chan, Chun-Ming Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong
Many cancer-associated mutations that deregulate cellular metabolic responses to hypoxia also reprogram carbon metabolism to promote utilization of glutamine. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cells deficient in the von Hippel–Lindau (
Arimichi Okazaki, Paulo A. Gameiro, Danos Christodoulou, Laura Laviollette, Meike Schneider, Frances Chaves, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Stephanie A. Yazinski, Richard Lee, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Lee Zou, Othon Iliopoulos
Obesity is characterized by aberrant fat accumulation. However, the intracellular signaling pathway that senses dietary fat and leads to fat storage remains elusive. Here, we have observed that the levels of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and the related family member HDAC10 are markedly reduced in adipose tissues of obese animals and humans. Mice with adipocyte-specific depletion of
Hui Qian, Yuanying Chen, Zongqian Nian, Lu Su, Haoyong Yu, Feng-Jung Chen, Xiuqin Zhang, Wenyi Xu, Linkang Zhou, Jiaming Liu, Jinhai Yu, Luxin Yu, Yan Gao, Hongchao Zhang, Haihong Zhang, Shimin Zhao, Li Yu, Rui-Ping Xiao, Yuqian Bao, Shaocong Hou, Pingping Li, Jiada Li, Haiteng Deng, Weiping Jia, Peng Li
SIRT2 is a cytoplasmic sirtuin that plays a role in various cellular processes, including tumorigenesis, metabolism, and inflammation. Since these processes require iron, we hypothesized that SIRT2 directly regulates cellular iron homeostasis. Here, we have demonstrated that SIRT2 depletion results in a decrease in cellular iron levels both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we determined that SIRT2 maintains cellular iron levels by binding to and deacetylating nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) on lysines 506 and 508, leading to a reduction in total and nuclear NRF2 levels. The reduction in nuclear NRF2 leads to reduced ferroportin 1 (FPN1) expression, which in turn results in decreased cellular iron export. Finally, we observed that
Xiaoyan Yang, Seong-Hoon Park, Hsiang-Chun Chang, Jason S. Shapiro, Athanassios Vassilopoulos, Konrad T. Sawicki, Chunlei Chen, Meng Shang, Paul W. Burridge, Conrad L. Epting, Lisa D. Wilsbacher, Supak Jenkitkasemwong, Mitchell Knutson, David Gius, Hossein Ardehali
Leptin contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP) through its actions in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin AT1 receptors within the brain are also involved in the control of RMR and BP, but whether this regulation overlaps with leptin’s actions is unclear. Here, we have demonstrated the selective requirement of the AT1A receptor in leptin-mediated control of RMR. We observed that AT1A receptors colocalized with leptin receptors (LEPRs) in the ARC. Cellular coexpression of AT1A and LEPR was almost exclusive to the ARC and occurred primarily within neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP). Mice lacking the AT1A receptor specifically in LEPR-expressing cells failed to show an increase in RMR in response to a high-fat diet and deoxycorticosterone acetate–salt (DOCA-salt) treatments, but BP control remained intact. Accordingly, loss of RMR control was recapitulated in mice lacking AT1A in AgRP-expressing cells. We conclude that angiotensin activates divergent mechanisms to control BP and RMR and that the brain RAS functions as a major integrator for RMR control through its actions at leptin-sensitive AgRP cells of the ARC.
Kristin E. Claflin, Jeremy A. Sandgren, Allyn M. Lambertz, Benjamin J. Weidemann, Nicole K. Littlejohn, Colin M.L. Burnett, Nicole A. Pearson, Donald A. Morgan, Katherine N. Gibson-Corley, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L. Grobe
Obesity causes insulin resistance, and PPARγ ligands such as rosiglitazone are insulin sensitizing, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) has major effects on visceral epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT). Here, we report that HFD-induced obesity in B6 mice also altered the activity of gene regulatory elements and genome-wide occupancy of PPARγ. Rosiglitazone treatment restored insulin sensitivity in obese B6 mice, yet, surprisingly, had little effect on gene expression in eWAT. However, in subcutaneous inguinal fat (iWAT), rosiglitazone markedly induced molecular signatures of brown fat, including the key thermogenic gene
Raymond E. Soccio, Zhenghui Li, Eric R. Chen, Yee Hoon Foong, Kiara K. Benson, Joanna R. Dispirito, Shannon E. Mullican, Matthew J. Emmett, Erika R. Briggs, Lindsey C. Peed, Richard K. Dzeng, Carlos J. Medina, Jennifer F. Jolivert, Megan Kissig, Satyajit R. Rajapurkar, Manashree Damle, Hee-Woong Lim, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale, David J. Steger, Mitchell A. Lazar
Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal.
Ronald P. Gaykema, Brandon A. Newmyer, Matteo Ottolini, Vidisha Raje, Daniel M. Warthen, Philip S. Lambeth, Maria Niccum, Ting Yao, Yiru Huang, Ira G. Schulman, Thurl E. Harris, Manoj K. Patel, Kevin W. Williams, Michael M. Scott
A highly orchestrated gene expression program establishes the properties that define mature adipocytes, but the contribution of posttranscriptional factors to the adipocyte phenotype is poorly understood. Here we have shown that the RNA-binding protein PSPC1, a component of the paraspeckle complex, promotes adipogenesis in vitro and is important for mature adipocyte function in vivo. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed that PSPC1 binds to intronic and 3′-untranslated regions of a number of adipocyte RNAs, including the RNA encoding the transcriptional regulator EBF1. Purification of the paraspeckle complex from adipocytes further showed that PSPC1 associates with the RNA export factor DDX3X in a differentiation-dependent manner. Remarkably, PSPC1 relocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during differentiation, coinciding with enhanced export of adipogenic RNAs. Mice lacking PSPC1 in fat displayed reduced lipid storage and adipose tissue mass and were resistant to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to a compensatory increase in energy expenditure. These findings highlight a role for PSPC1-dependent RNA maturation in the posttranscriptional control of adipose development and function.
Jiexin Wang, Prashant Rajbhandari, Andrey Damianov, Areum Han, Tamer Sallam, Hironori Waki, Claudio J. Villanueva, Stephen D. Lee, Ronni Nielsen, Susanne Mandrup, Karen Reue, Stephen G. Young, Julian Whitelegge, Enrique Saez, Douglas L. Black, Peter Tontonoz
Tissue inflammation is a key component of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with a variety of immune cell types accumulating in adipose tissue. Here, we have demonstrated increased numbers of B2 lymphocytes in obese adipose tissue and have shown that high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) insulin resistance is mitigated in B cell-deficient (Bnull) mice. Adoptive transfer of adipose tissue B2 cells (ATB2) from wild-type HFD donor mice into HFD Bnull recipients completely restored the effect of HFD to induce insulin resistance. Recruitment and activation of ATB2 cells was mediated by signaling through the chemokine leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and its receptor LTB4R1. Furthermore, the adverse effects of ATB2 cells on glucose homeostasis were partially dependent upon T cells and macrophages. These results demonstrate the importance of ATB2 cells in obesity-induced insulin resistance and suggest that inhibition of the LTB4/LTB4R1 axis might be a useful approach for developing insulin-sensitizing therapeutics.
Wei Ying, Joshua Wollam, Jachelle M. Ofrecio, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dalila El Ouarrat, Yun Sok Lee, Da Young Oh, Pingping Li, Olivia Osborn, Jerrold M. Olefsky
The mechanism by which leptin reverses diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. We examined the acute insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of DKA. Leptin infusion reduced rates of lipolysis, hepatic glucose production (HGP), and hepatic ketogenesis by 50% within 6 hours and were independent of any changes in plasma glucagon concentrations; these effects were abrogated by coinfusion of corticosterone. Treating leptin- and corticosterone-infused rats with an adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitor blocked corticosterone-induced increases in plasma glucose concentrations and rates of HGP and ketogenesis. Similarly, adrenalectomized type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats exhibited decreased rates of lipolysis, HGP, and ketogenesis; these effects were reversed by corticosterone infusion. Leptin-induced decreases in lipolysis, HGP, and ketogenesis in DKA were also nullified by relatively small increases (15 to 70 pM) in plasma insulin concentrations. In contrast, the chronic glucose-lowering effect of leptin in a STZ-induced mouse model of poorly controlled T1D was associated with decreased food intake, reduced plasma glucagon and corticosterone concentrations, and decreased ectopic lipid (triacylglycerol/diacylglycerol) content in liver and muscle. Collectively, these studies demonstrate marked differences in the acute insulin-independent effects by which leptin reverses fasting hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis in a rodent model of DKA versus the chronic pleotropic effects by which leptin reverses hyperglycemia in a non-DKA rodent model of T1D.
Rachel J. Perry, Liang Peng, Abudukadier Abulizi, Lynn Kennedy, Gary W. Cline, Gerald I. Shulman
Elisa Álvarez Hernández, Sabine Kahl, Anett Seelig, Paul Begovatz, Martin Irmler, Yuliya Kupriyanova, Bettina Nowotny, Peter Nowotny, Christian Herder, Cristina Barosa, Filipa Carvalho, Jan Rozman, Susanne Neschen, John G. Jones, Johannes Beckers, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Michael Roden