Notch signaling regulates differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine lineage during embryogenesis, but the role of Notch in mature β cells is unclear. We found that islets derived from lean mice show modest β cell Notch activity, which increases in obesity and in response to high glucose. This response appeared maladaptive, as mice with β cell–specific–deficient Notch transcriptional activity showed improved glucose tolerance when subjected to high-fat diet feeding. Conversely, mice with β cell–specific Notch gain of function (β-NICD) had a progressive loss of β cell maturity, due to proteasomal degradation of MafA, leading to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose intolerance with aging or obesity. Surprisingly, Notch-active β cells had increased proliferative capacity, leading to increased but dysfunctional β cell mass. These studies demonstrate a dynamic role for Notch in developed β cells for simultaneously regulating β cell function and proliferation.
Alberto Bartolome, Changyu Zhu, Lori Sussel, Utpal B. Pajvani
In response to viral pathogens, the host upregulates antiviral genes that suppress translation of viral mRNAs. However, induction of such antiviral responses may not be exclusive to viruses, as the pathways lie at the intersection of broad inflammatory networks that can also be induced by bacterial pathogens. Using a model of Gram-negative sepsis, we show that propagation of kidney damage initiated by a bacterial origin ultimately involves antiviral responses that result in host translation shutdown. We determined that activation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 2/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (Eif2ak2/Eif2α) axis is the key mediator of translation initiation block in late-phase sepsis. Reversal of this axis mitigated kidney injury. Furthermore, temporal profiling of the kidney translatome revealed that multiple genes involved in formation of the initiation complex were translationally altered during bacterial sepsis. Collectively, our findings imply that translation shutdown is indifferent to the specific initiating pathogen and is an important determinant of tissue injury in sepsis.
Takashi Hato, Bernhard Maier, Farooq Syed, Jered Myslinski, Amy Zollman, Zoya Plotkin, Michael T. Eadon, Pierre C. Dagher
The lipin phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate in most mammalian tissues. The 3 lipin proteins (lipin 1, lipin 2, and lipin 3) each have PAP activity, but have distinct tissue distributions, with lipin 1 being the predominant PAP enzyme in many metabolic tissues. One exception is the small intestine, which is unique in expressing exclusively lipin 2 and lipin 3. TAG synthesis in small intestinal enterocytes utilizes 2-monoacylglycerol and does not require the PAP reaction, making the role of lipin proteins in enterocytes unclear. Enterocyte TAGs are stored transiently as cytosolic lipid droplets or incorporated into lipoproteins (chylomicrons) for secretion. We determined that lipin enzymes are critical for chylomicron biogenesis, through regulation of membrane phospholipid composition and association of apolipoprotein B48 with nascent chylomicron particles. Lipin 2/3 deficiency caused phosphatidic acid accumulation and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, which were associated with enhanced protein levels of a key phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme (CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α) and altered membrane phospholipid composition. Impaired chylomicron synthesis in lipin 2/3 deficiency could be rescued by normalizing phospholipid synthesis levels. These data implicate lipin 2/3 as a control point for enterocyte phospholipid homeostasis and chylomicron biogenesis.
Peixiang Zhang, Lauren S. Csaki, Emilio Ronquillo, Lynn J. Baufeld, Jason Y. Lin, Alexis Gutierrez, Jennifer R. Dwyer, David N. Brindley, Loren G. Fong, Peter Tontonoz, Stephen G. Young, Karen Reue
Using an integrated approach to characterize the pancreatic tissue and isolated islets from a 33-year-old with 17 years of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we found that donor islets contained β cells without insulitis and lacked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion despite a normal insulin response to cAMP-evoked stimulation. With these unexpected findings for T1D, we sequenced the donor DNA and found a pathogenic heterozygous variant in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF1A). In one of the first studies of human pancreatic islets with a disease-causing HNF1A variant associated with the most common form of monogenic diabetes, we found that HNF1A dysfunction leads to insulin-insufficient diabetes reminiscent of T1D by impacting the regulatory processes critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and suggest a rationale for a therapeutic alternative to current treatment.
Rachana Haliyur, Xin Tong, May Sanyoura, Shristi Shrestha, Jill Lindner, Diane C. Saunders, Radhika Aramandla, Greg Poffenberger, Sambra D. Redick, Rita Bottino, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn E. Levy, Raymond D. Blind, David M. Harlan, Louis H. Philipson, Roland W. Stein, Marcela Brissova, Alvin C. Powers
We investigated how pathological changes in newborn hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGCs) lead to epilepsy. Using a rabies virus–mediated retrograde tracing system and a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) chemogenetic method, we demonstrated that newborn hippocampal DGCs are required for the formation of epileptic neural circuits and the induction of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). A rabies virus–mediated mapping study revealed that aberrant circuit integration of hippocampal newborn DGCs formed excessive de novo excitatory connections as well as recurrent excitatory loops, allowing the hippocampus to produce, amplify, and propagate excessive recurrent excitatory signals. In epileptic mice, DREADD-mediated–specific suppression of hippocampal newborn DGCs dramatically reduced epileptic spikes and SRS in an inducible and reversible manner. Conversely, specific activation of hippocampal newborn DGCs increased both epileptic spikes and SRS. Our study reveals an essential role for hippocampal newborn DGCs in the formation and function of epileptic neural circuits, providing critical insights into DGCs as a potential therapeutic target for treating epilepsy.
Qi-Gang Zhou, Ashley D. Nemes, Daehoon Lee, Eun Jeoung Ro, Jing Zhang, Amy S. Nowacki, Susan M. Dymecki, Imad M. Najm, Hoonkyo Suh
Recurrent broad-scale heterozygous deletions are frequently observed in human cancer. Here we tested the hypothesis that compound haploinsufficiency of neighboring genes at chromosome 8p promotes tumorigenesis. By targeting the mouse orthologs of human DOK2 and DUSP4 genes, which were co-deleted in approximately half of human lung adenocarcinomas, we found that compound-heterozygous deletion of Dok2 and Dusp4 in mice resulted in lung tumorigenesis with short latency and high incidence, and that their co-deletion synergistically activated MAPK signaling and promoted cell proliferation. Conversely, restoration of DOK2 and DUSP4 in lung cancer cells suppressed MAPK activation and cell proliferation. Importantly, in contrast to downregulation of DOK2 or DUSP4 alone, concomitant downregulation of DOK2 and DUSP4 was associated with poor survival in human lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, our findings lend in vivo experimental support to the notion that compound haploinsufficiency, due to broad-scale chromosome deletions, constitutes a driving force in tumorigenesis.
Ming Chen, Jiangwen Zhang, Alice H. Berger, Moussa S. Diolombi, Christopher Ng, Jacqueline Fung, Roderick T. Bronson, Mireia Castillo-Martin, Tin Htwe Thin, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Robin Plevin, Pier Paolo Pandolfi
A considerable body of evidence suggests that Fc-dependent functions improve the capacity of broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) to protect against and control HIV-1 infection. This phenomenon, however, has not been formally tested in robust cell-associated macaque simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models with newer-generation BnAbs. We studied both the WT BnAb PGT121 and a LALA mutant of PGT121 (which has impaired Fc-dependent functions) for their ability to protect pigtail macaques from an i.v. high-dose cell-associated SHIVSF162P3 challenge. We found that both WT and LALA PGT121 completely protected all 12 macaques studied. Further, partial depletion of NK cells, key mediators of Fc-dependent functions, did not abrogate the protective efficacy of PGT121 in 6 macaques. Additionally, in animals with established SHIVSF162P3 infection, SHIV viremia levels were equally rapidly reduced by LALA and WT PGT121. Our studies suggest that the potent neutralizing capacity of PGT121 renders the Fc-dependent functions of the Ab at least partially redundant. These findings have implications for Ab-mediated protection from and control of HIV-1 infection.
Matthew S. Parsons, Wen Shi Lee, Anne B. Kristensen, Thakshila Amarasena, Georges Khoury, Adam K. Wheatley, Arnold Reynaldi, Bruce D. Wines, P. Mark Hogarth, Miles P. Davenport, Stephen J. Kent
Transplantation with autologous hematopoietic progenitors remains an important consolidation treatment for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and is thought to prolong the disease plateau phase by providing intensive cytoreduction. However, transplantation induces inflammation in the context of profound lymphodepletion that may cause hitherto unexpected immunological effects. We developed preclinical models of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for MM using Vk*MYC myeloma–bearing recipient mice and donor mice that were myeloma naive or myeloma experienced to simulate autologous transplantation. Surprisingly, we demonstrated broad induction of T cell–dependent myeloma control, most efficiently from memory T cells within myeloma-experienced grafts, but also through priming of naive T cells after BMT. CD8+ T cells from mice with controlled myeloma had a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and higher clonotype overlap relative to myeloma-free BMT recipients. Furthermore, T cell–dependent myeloma control could be adoptively transferred to secondary recipients and was myeloma cell clone specific. Interestingly, donor-derived IL-17A acted directly on myeloma cells expressing the IL-17 receptor to induce a transcriptional landscape that promoted tumor growth and immune escape. Conversely, donor IFN-γ secretion and signaling were critical to protective immunity and were profoundly augmented by CD137 agonists. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of transplantation in myeloma and provide rational approaches to improving clinical outcomes.
Slavica Vuckovic, Simone A. Minnie, David Smith, Kate H. Gartlan, Thomas S. Watkins, Kate A. Markey, Pamela Mukhopadhyay, Camille Guillerey, Rachel D. Kuns, Kelly R. Locke, Antonia L. Pritchard, Peter A. Johansson, Antiopi Varelias, Ping Zhang, Nicholas D. Huntington, Nicola Waddell, Marta Chesi, John J. Miles, Mark J. Smyth, Geoffrey R. Hill
Glioblastoma is highly enriched with macrophages, and osteopontin (OPN) expression levels correlate with glioma grade and the degree of macrophage infiltration; thus, we studied whether OPN plays a crucial role in immune modulation. Quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA were used to determine OPN expression. Knockdown of OPN was achieved using complementary siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR/Cas9 techniques, followed by a series of in vitro functional migration and immunological assays. OPN gene–deficient mice were used to examine the roles of non-tumor-derived OPN on survival of mice harboring intracranial gliomas. Patients with mesenchymal glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) show high OPN expression, a negative survival prognosticator. OPN is a potent chemokine for macrophages, and its blockade significantly impaired the ability of glioma cells to recruit macrophages. Integrin αvβ5 (ITGαvβ5) is highly expressed on glioblastoma-infiltrating macrophages and constitutes a major OPN receptor. OPN maintains the M2 macrophage gene signature and phenotype. Both tumor-derived and host-derived OPN were critical for glioma development. OPN deficiency in either innate immune or glioma cells resulted in a marked reduction in M2 macrophages and elevated T cell effector activity infiltrating the glioma. Furthermore, OPN deficiency in the glioma cells sensitized them to direct CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity. Systemic administration in mice of 4-1BB–OPN bispecific aptamers was efficacious, increasing median survival time by 68% (P < 0.05). OPN is thus an important chemokine for recruiting macrophages to glioblastoma, mediates crosstalk between tumor cells and the innate immune system, and has the potential to be exploited as a therapeutic target.
Jun Wei, Anantha Marisetty, Brett Schrand, Konrad Gabrusiewicz, Yuuri Hashimoto, Martina Ott, Zacharia Grami, Ling-Yuan Kong, Xiaoyang Ling, Hillary Caruso, Shouhao Zhou, Y. Alan Wang, Gregory N. Fuller, Jason Huse, Eli Gilboa, Nannan Kang, Xingxu Huang, Roel Verhaak, Shulin Li, Amy B. Heimberger
Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS that respectively encode a CXXC-type zinc finger protein and an SNF2 family chromatin remodeler cause immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome types 3 and 4. Here, we demonstrate that the classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) proteins Ku80 and Ku70, as well as HELLS, coimmunoprecipitated with CDCA7. The coimmunoprecipitation of the repair proteins was sensitive to nuclease treatment and an ICF3 mutation in CDCA7 that impairs its chromatin binding. The functional importance of these interactions was strongly suggested by the compromised C-NHEJ activity and significant delay in Ku80 accumulation at DNA damage sites in CDCA7- and HELLS-deficient HEK293 cells. Consistent with the repair defect, these cells displayed increased apoptosis, abnormal chromosome segregation, aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and significant accumulation of γH2AX signals. Although less prominent, cells with mutations in the other ICF genes DNMT3B and ZBTB24 (responsible for ICF types 1 and 2, respectively) showed similar defects. Importantly, lymphoblastoid cells from ICF patients shared the same changes detected in the mutant HEK293 cells to varying degrees. Although the C-NHEJ defect alone did not cause CG hypomethylation, CDCA7 and HELLS are involved in maintaining CG methylation at centromeric and pericentromeric repeats. The defect in C-NHEJ may account for some common features of ICF cells, including centromeric instability, abnormal chromosome segregation, and apoptosis.
Motoko Unoki, Hironori Funabiki, Guillaume Velasco, Claire Francastel, Hiroyuki Sasaki