CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 gave rise to defects in T cell signaling and proliferation upon antigen stimulation of ARPC1B-deficient CTLs, leading to a progressive loss of CD8+ T cells. This triggered an activation-induced immunodeficiency of CTL activity in ARPC1B-deficient patients, which could explain the susceptibility to severe and prolonged viral infections.
Lyra O. Randzavola, Katharina Strege, Marie Juzans, Yukako Asano, Jane C. Stinchcombe, Christian M. Gawden-Bone, Matthew N.J. Seaman, Taco W. Kuijpers, Gillian M. Griffiths
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a genetic bleeding disorder leading to systemic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the ALK1-ENG-Smad1/5/8 pathway. Evidence suggests that HHT pathogenesis strongly relies on overactivated PI3K-Akt-mTOR and VEGFR2 pathways in endothelial cells (ECs). In the BMP9/10-immunoblocked (BMP9/10ib) neonatal mouse model of HHT, we report here that the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, and the receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, nintedanib, could synergistically fully block, but also reversed, retinal AVMs to avert retinal bleeding and anemia. Sirolimus plus nintedanib prevented vascular pathology in the oral mucosa, lungs, and liver of the BMP9/10ib mice, as well as significantly reduced gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia in inducible ALK1-deficient adult mice. Mechanistically, in vivo in BMP9/10ib mouse ECs, sirolimus and nintedanib blocked the overactivation of mTOR and VEGFR2, respectively. Furthermore, we found that sirolimus activated ALK2-mediated Smad1/5/8 signaling in primary ECs—including in HHT patient blood outgrowth ECs—and partially rescued Smad1/5/8 activity in vivo in BMP9/10ib mouse ECs. These data demonstrate that the combined correction of endothelial Smad1/5/8, mTOR, and VEGFR2 pathways opposes HHT pathogenesis. Repurposing of sirolimus plus nintedanib might provide therapeutic benefit in HHT patients.
Santiago Ruiz, Haitian Zhao, Pallavi Chandakkar, Julien Papoin, Hyunwoo Choi, Aya Nomura-Kitabayashi, Radhika Patel, Matthew Gillen, Li Diao, Prodyot K. Chatterjee, Mingzhu He, Yousef Al-Abed, Ping Wang, Christine N. Metz, S. Paul Oh, Lionel Blanc, Fabien Campagne, Philippe Marambaud
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), with approximately 90% of patients harboring at least one copy of the disease-associated variant F508del. We utilized a yeast phenomic system to identify genetic modifiers of F508del-CFTR biogenesis, from which ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12/uL11) emerged as a molecular target. In the present study, we investigated mechanism(s) by which suppression of RPL12 rescues F508del protein synthesis and activity. Using ribosome profiling, we found that rates of translation initiation and elongation were markedly slowed by RPL12 silencing. However, proteolytic stability and patch-clamp assays revealed RPL12 depletion significantly increased F508del-CFTR steady-state expression, interdomain assembly, and baseline open-channel probability. We next evaluated whether Rpl12-corrected F508del-CFTR could be further enhanced with concomitant pharmacologic repair (e.g., using clinically approved modulators lumacaftor and tezacaftor) and demonstrated additivity of these treatments. Rpl12 knockdown also partially restored maturation of specific CFTR variants in addition to F508del, and WT Cftr biogenesis was enhanced in the pancreas, colon, and ileum of Rpl12 haplosufficient mice. Modulation of ribosome velocity therefore represents a robust method for understanding both CF pathogenesis and therapeutic response.
Kathryn E. Oliver, Robert Rauscher, Marjolein Mijnders, Wei Wang, Matthew J. Wolpert, Jessica Maya, Carleen M. Sabusap, Robert A. Kesterson, Kevin L. Kirk, Andras Rab, Ineke Braakman, Jeong S. Hong, John L. Hartman IV, Zoya Ignatova, Eric J. Sorscher
Fibronectin in the vascular wall promotes inflammatory activation of the endothelium during vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis. These effects are mediated in part by fibronectin binding to integrin α5, which recruits and activates phosphodiesterase 4D5 (PDE4D5) by inducing its dephosphorylation on an inhibitory site Ser651. Active PDE then hydrolyzes anti-inflammatory cAMP to facilitate inflammatory signaling. To test this model in vivo, we mutated the integrin binding site in PDE4D5 in mice. This mutation reduced endothelial inflammatory activation in athero-prone regions of arteries, and, in a hyperlipidemia model, reduced atherosclerotic plaque size while increasing markers of plaque stability. We then investigated the mechanism of PDE4D5 activation. Proteomics identified the PP2A regulatory subunit B55α as the factor recruiting PP2A to PDE4D5. The B55α-PP2A complex localized to adhesions and directly dephosphorylated PDE4D5. This interaction also unexpectedly stabilized the PP2A-B55α complex. The integrin-regulated, pro-atherosclerotic transcription factor Yap is also dephosphorylated and activated through this pathway. PDE4D5 therefore mediates matrix-specific regulation of EC phenotype via an unconventional adapter role, assembling and anchoring a multifunctional PP2A complex with other targets. These results are likely to have widespread consequences for control of cell function by integrins.
Sanguk Yun, Rui Hu, Melanie E. Schwaemmle, Alexander N. Scherer, Zhenwu Zhuang, Anthony J. Koleske, David C. Pallas, Martin A. Schwartz
Deciphering novel pathways regulating liver lipid content has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear envelope is a site of regulation of lipid metabolism but there is limited appreciation of the responsible mechanisms and molecular components within this organelle. We showed that conditional hepatocyte deletion of the inner nuclear membrane protein lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) caused defective VLDL secretion and steatosis, including intranuclear lipid accumulation. LAP1 binds to and activates torsinA, an AAA+ ATPase that resides in the perinuclear space and continuous main ER. Deletion of torsinA from mouse hepatocytes caused even greater reductions in VLDL secretion and profound steatosis. Both of these mutant mouse lines developed hepatic steatosis and subsequent steatohepatitis on a regular chow diet in the absence of whole-body insulin resistance or obesity. Our results establish an essential role for the nuclear envelope-localized torsinA-LAP1 complex in hepatic VLDL secretion and suggest that the torsinA pathway participates in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Ji-Yeon Shin, Antonio Hernandez-Ono, Tatyana Fedotova, Cecilia Östlund, Michael J. Lee, Sarah B. Gibeley, Chun-Chi Liang, William T. Dauer, Henry N. Ginsberg, Howard J. Worman
Histone H3K27 demethylase, JMJD3 plays a critical role in gene expression and T-cell differentiation. However, the role and mechanisms of JMJD3 in T cell trafficking remain poorly understood. Here we show that JMJD3 deficiency in CD4+ T cells resulted in an accumulation of T cells in the thymus, and reduction of T cell number in the secondary lymphoid organs. We identified PDLIM4 as a significantly down-regulated target gene in JMJD3-deficient CD4+ T cells by gene profiling and ChIP-seq analyses. We further showed that PDLIM4 functioned as an adaptor protein to interact with S1P1 and filamentous actin (F-actin), thus serving as a key regulator of T cell trafficking. Mechanistically, JMJD3 bound to the promoter and gene body regions of Pdlim4 gene and regulated its expression by interacting with zinc finger transcription factor KLF2. Our findings have identified Pdlim4 as a JMJD3 target gene that affects T-cell trafficking by cooperating with S1P1, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which JMJD3 regulates genes involved in T cell trafficking.
Chuntang Fu, Qingtian Li, Jia Zou, Changsheng Xing, Mei Luo, Bingnan Yin, Junjun Chu, Jiaming Yu, Xin Liu, Helen Y. Wang, Rong-Fu Wang
While improvements in genetic analysis have greatly enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms behind pancreatitis, it continues to afflict many families for whom the hereditary factors remain unknown. Recent evaluation of a patient with a strong family history of pancreatitis sparked us to reexamine a large kindred originally reported over 50 years ago with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of chronic pancreatitis, diabetes and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Whole exome sequencing analysis identified a rare missense mutation in the gene encoding pancreas-specific protease Elastase 3B (CELA3B) that cosegregates with disease. Studies of the mutant protein in vitro, in cell lines and in CRISPR-Cas9 engineered mice indicate that this mutation causes translational upregulation of CELA3B, which upon secretion and activation by trypsin leads to uncontrolled proteolysis and recurrent pancreatitis. Although lesions in several other pancreatitic proteases have been previously linked to hereditary pancreatitis, this is the first known instance of a mutation in CELA3B and a defect in translational control contributing to this disease.
Paul C. Moore, Jessica T. Cortez, Chester E. Chamberlain, Diana Alba, Amy C. Berger, Zoe Quandt, Alice Chan, Mickie H. Cheng, Jhoanne L. Bautista, Justin Peng, Michael S. German, Mark Anderson, Scott A. Oakes
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a heterogeneous disease with diverse drivers of disease progression and mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. We conducted deep phenotypic characterization of CRPC metastases and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines using whole genome RNA sequencing, gene set enrichment analysis and immunohistochemistry. Our analyses revealed five mCRPC phenotypes based on the expression of well-characterized androgen receptor (AR) or neuroendocrine (NE) genes: (i) AR-high tumors (ARPC), (ii) AR-low tumors (ARLPC), (iii) amphicrine tumors composed of cells co-expressing AR and NE genes (AMPC), (iv) double-negative tumors (i.e. AR-/NE-; DNPC) and (v) tumors with small cell or NE gene expression without AR activity (SCNPC). RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) activity, which suppresses NE gene expression, was lost in AMPC and SCNPC PDX models. However, knockdown of REST in cell lines revealed that attenuated REST activity drives the AMPC phenotype but is not sufficient for SCNPC conversion. We also identified a subtype of DNPC tumors with squamous differentiation and generated an encompassing 26-gene transcriptional signature that distinguished the five mCRPC phenotypes. Together, our data highlight the central role of AR and REST in classifying treatment-resistant mCRPC phenotypes. These molecular classifications could potentially guide future therapeutic studies and clinical trial design.
Mark P. Labrecque, Ilsa M. Coleman, Lisha G. Brown, Lawrence D. True, Lori Kollath, Bryce Lakely, Holly M. Nguyen, Yu C. Yang, Rui M. Gil da Costa, Arja Kaipainen, Roger Coleman, Celestia S. Higano, Evan Y. Yu, Heather H. Cheng, Elahe A. Mostaghel, Bruce Montgomery, Michael T. Schweizer, Andrew C. Hsieh, Daniel W. Lin, Eva Corey, Peter S. Nelson, Colm Morrissey
Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes is primarily due to β-cell dysfunction. However, a genetic study to directly interrogate β-cell function ex vivo has never been previously performed. We isolated 233,447 islets from 483 Diversity Outbred (DO) mice maintained on a Western-style diet, and measured insulin secretion in response to a variety of secretagogues. Insulin secretion from DO islets ranged >1,000-fold even though none of the mice were diabetic. The insulin secretory response to each secretagogue had a unique genetic architecture; some of the loci were specific for one condition, whereas others overlapped. Human loci that are syntenic to many of the insulin secretion QTL from mouse are associated with diabetes-related SNPs in human genome-wide association studies. We report on three genes, Ptpn18, Hunk and Zfp148, where the phenotype predictions from the genetic screen were fulfilled in our studies of transgenic mouse models. These three genes encode a non-receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase, a serine/threonine protein kinase, and a Krϋppel-type zinc-finger transcription factor, respectively. Our results demonstrate that genetic variation in insulin secretion that can lead to type 2 diabetes is discoverable in non-diabetic individuals.
Mark P. Keller, Mary E. Rabaglia, Kathryn L. Schueler, Donnie S. Stapleton, Daniel M. Gatti, Matthew Vincent, Kelly A. Mitok, Ziyue Wang, Takanao Ishimura, Shane P. Simonett, Christopher H. Emfinger, Rahul Das, Tim Beck, Christina Kendziorski, Karl W. Broman, Brian S. Yandell, Gary A. Churchill, Alan D. Attie
Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding TET DNA dioxygenase occur frequently in hematopoietic malignancy, but rarely in solid tumors which instead commonly have reduced activity. The impact of decreased TET activity in solid tumors is not known. Here we show that TET2 mediates interferon γ (IFNγ)-JAK-STAT signaling pathway to control chemokine and PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte infiltration and cancer immunity. IFNγ stimulated STAT1 to bind TET2 and recruit TET2 to hydroxymethylate chemokine and PD-L1 genes. Reduced TET activity was associated with decreased TH1-type chemokines and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the progression of human colon cancer. Deletion of Tet2 in murine melanoma and colon tumor cells reduced chemokine expression and TILs, enabling tumors to evade anti-tumor immunity and to resist anti-PD-L1 therapy. Conversely, stimulating TET activity by systematic injection of its co-factor, ascorbate/vitamin C, increased chemokine and TILs, leading to enhanced anti-tumor immunity and anti-PD-L1 efficacy and extended lifespan of tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest an IFNγ-JAK-STAT-TET signaling pathway that mediates tumor response to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 therapy and is frequently disrupted in solid tumors. Our findings also suggest TET activity as a biomarker for predicting the efficacy and patient response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and stimulating TET activity as an adjuvant immunotherapy of solid tumors.
Yan-ping Xu, Lei Lv, Ying Liu, Matthew D. Smith, Wen-Cai Li, Xian-ming Tan, Meng Cheng, Zhijun Li, Michael Bovino, Jeffrey Aubé, Yue Xiong
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