Hans C. Dreyer, Lisa A. Strycker, Hilary A. Senesac, Austin D. Hocker, Keith Smolkowski, Steven N. Shah, Brian A. Jewett
Glucocorticoid (GC) excess adversely affects skin integrity, inducing thinning and impaired wound healing. Aged skin, particularly that which has been photo-exposed, shares a similar phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated age-induced expression of the GC-activating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Here, we determined 11β-HSD1 levels in human skin biopsies from young and older volunteers and examined the aged 11β-HSD1 KO mouse skin phenotype. 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in aged human and mouse skin and in PE compared with donor-matched photo-protected human biopsies. Age-induced dermal atrophy with deranged collagen structural organization was prevented in 11β-HSD1 KO mice, which also exhibited increased collagen density. We found that treatment of HDFs with physiological concentrations of cortisol inhibited rate-limiting steps in collagen biosynthesis and processing. Furthermore, topical 11β-HSD1 inhibitor treatment accelerated healing of full-thickness mouse dorsal wounds, with improved healing also observed in aged 11β-HSD1 KO mice. These findings suggest that elevated 11β-HSD1 activity in aging skin leads to increased local GC generation, which may account for adverse changes occurring in the elderly, and 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of age-associated impairments in dermal integrity and wound healing.
Ana Tiganescu, Abd A. Tahrani, Stuart A. Morgan, Marcela Otranto, Alexis Desmoulière, Lianne Abrahams, Zaki Hassan-Smith, Elizabeth A. Walker, Elizabeth H. Rabbitt, Mark S. Cooper, Kurt Amrein, Gareth G. Lavery, Paul M. Stewart
L. Ashley Watson, Lauren A. Solomon, Jennifer Ruizhe Li, Yan Jiang, Matthew Edwards, Kazuo Shin-ya, Frank Beier, Nathalie G. Bérubé
Aging is regulated by conserved signaling pathways. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) family of serine/threonine kinases regulates several of these pathways, but the role of GSK-3 in aging is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate premature death and acceleration of age-related pathologies in the
Jibin Zhou, Theresa A. Freeman, Firdos Ahmad, Xiying Shang, Emily Mangano, Erhe Gao, John Farber, Yajing Wang, Xin-Liang Ma, James Woodgett, Ronald J. Vagnozzi, Hind Lal, Thomas Force
The accumulation of cellular damage, including DNA damage, is thought to contribute to aging-related degenerative changes, but how damage drives aging is unknown. XFE progeroid syndrome is a disease of accelerated aging caused by a defect in DNA repair. NF-κB, a transcription factor activated by cellular damage and stress, has increased activity with aging and aging-related chronic diseases. To determine whether NF-κB drives aging in response to the accumulation of spontaneous, endogenous DNA damage, we measured the activation of NF-κB in WT and progeroid model mice. As both WT and progeroid mice aged, NF-κB was activated stochastically in a variety of cell types. Genetic depletion of one allele of the p65 subunit of NF-κB or treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of the NF-κB–activating kinase, IKK, delayed the age-related symptoms and pathologies of progeroid mice. Additionally, inhibition of NF-κB reduced oxidative DNA damage and stress and delayed cellular senescence. These results indicate that the mechanism by which DNA damage drives aging is due in part to NF-κB activation. IKK/NF-κB inhibitors are sufficient to attenuate this damage and could provide clinical benefit for degenerative changes associated with accelerated aging disorders and normal aging.
Jeremy S. Tilstra, Andria R. Robinson, Jin Wang, Siobhán Q. Gregg, Cheryl L. Clauson, Daniel P. Reay, Luigi A. Nasto, Claudette M. St Croix, Arvydas Usas, Nam Vo, Johnny Huard, Paula R. Clemens, Donna B. Stolz, Denis C. Guttridge, Simon C. Watkins, George A. Garinis, Yinsheng Wang, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Paul D. Robbins
Aging is a major risk factor for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease (HD). Reduced neuronal IGF1 or Irs2 signaling have been shown to extend life span in mice. To determine whether Irs2 signaling modulates neurodegeneration in HD, we genetically modulated Irs2 concentrations in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Increasing Irs2 levels in the brains of R6/2 mice significantly reduced life span and increased neuronal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, reducing Irs2 levels throughout the body (except in β cells, where Irs2 expression is needed to prevent diabetes onset; R6/2•Irs2+/–•Irs2βtg mice) improved motor performance and extended life span. The slower progression of HD-like symptoms was associated with increased nuclear localization of the transcription factor FoxO1 and increased expression of FoxO1-dependent genes that promote autophagy, mitochondrial function, and resistance to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial function improved and the number of autophagosomes increased in R6/2•Irs2+/–•Irs2βtg mice, whereas aggregate formation and oxidative stress decreased. Thus, our study suggests that Irs2 signaling can modulate HD progression. Since we found the expression of Irs2 to be normal in grade II HD patients, our results suggest that decreasing IRS2 signaling could be part of a therapeutic approach to slow the progression of HD.
Marianna Sadagurski, Zhiyong Cheng, Aldo Rozzo, Isabella Palazzolo, Gregory R. Kelley, Xiaocheng Dong, Dimitri Krainc, Morris F. White
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a devastating premature aging disease, is caused by a point mutation in the lamin A gene (LMNA). This mutation constitutively activates a cryptic splice donor site, resulting in a mutant lamin A protein known as progerin. Recent studies have demonstrated that progerin is also produced at low levels in normal human cells and tissues. However, the cause-and-effect relationship between normal aging and progerin production in normal individuals has not yet been determined. In this study, we have shown in normal human fibroblasts that progressive telomere damage during cellular senescence plays a causative role in activating progerin production. Progressive telomere damage was also found to lead to extensive changes in alternative splicing in multiple other genes. Interestingly, elevated progerin production was not seen during cellular senescence that does not entail telomere shortening. Taken together, our results suggest a synergistic relationship between telomere dysfunction and progerin production during the induction of cell senescence, providing mechanistic insight into how progerin may participate in the normal aging process.
Kan Cao, Cecilia D. Blair, Dina A. Faddah, Julia E. Kieckhaefer, Michelle Olive, Michael R. Erdos, Elizabeth G. Nabel, Francis S. Collins
The enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a critical regulator of many cellular functions, including energy metabolism. However, the precise mechanisms that modulate SIRT1 activity remain unknown. As SIRT1 activity in vitro was recently found to be negatively regulated by interaction with the deleted in breast cancer–1 (DBC1) protein, we set out to investigate whether DBC1 regulates SIRT1 activity in vivo. We found that DBC1 and SIRT1 colocalized and interacted, and that DBC1 modulated SIRT1 activity, in multiple cell lines and tissues. In mouse liver, increased SIRT1 activity, concomitant with decreased DBC1-SIRT1 interaction, was detected after 24 hours of starvation, whereas decreased SIRT1 activity and increased interaction with DBC1 was observed with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Consistent with the hypothesis that DBC1 is crucial for HFD-induced inhibition of SIRT1 and for the development of experimental liver steatosis, genetic deletion of Dbc1 in mice led to increased SIRT1 activity in several tissues, including liver. Furthermore, DBC1-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced liver steatosis and inflammation, despite the development of obesity. These observations define what we believe to be a new role for DBC1 as an in vivo regulator of SIRT1 activity and liver steatosis. We therefore propose that the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction may serve as a new target for therapies aimed at nonalcoholic liver steatosis.
Carlos Escande, Claudia C.S. Chini, Veronica Nin, Katherine Minter Dykhouse, Colleen M. Novak, James Levine, Jan van Deursen, Gregory J. Gores, Junjie Chen, Zhenkun Lou, Eduardo Nunes Chini
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family of proteins that promote longevity in many organisms. Increased expression of SIRT3 has been linked to an extended life span in humans. Here, we have shown that Sirt3 protects the mouse heart by blocking the cardiac hypertrophic response. Although Sirt3-deficient mice appeared to have normal activity, they showed signs of cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis at 8 weeks of age. Application of hypertrophic stimuli to these mice produced a severe cardiac hypertrophic response, whereas Sirt3-expressing Tg mice were protected from similar stimuli. In primary cultures of cardiomyocytes, Sirt3 blocked cardiac hypertrophy by activating the forkhead box O3a–dependent (Foxo3a-dependent), antioxidant–encoding genes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (Cat), thereby decreasing cellular levels of ROS. Reduced ROS levels suppressed Ras activation and downstream signaling through the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. This resulted in repressed activity of transcription factors, specifically GATA4 and NFAT, and translation factors, specifically eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (elf4E) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6P), which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. These results demonstrate that SIRT3 is an endogenous negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, which protects hearts by suppressing cellular levels of ROS.
Nagalingam R. Sundaresan, Madhu Gupta, Gene Kim, Senthilkumar B. Rajamohan, Ayman Isbatan, Mahesh P. Gupta
We have previously reported that genetically increased angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, or absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor, increase kidney damage in diabetic mice. We demonstrate here that this is part of a more general phenomenon — diabetes and, to a lesser degree, absence of the B2 receptor, independently but also largely additively when combined, enhance senescence-associated phenotypes in multiple tissues. Thus, at 12 months of age, indicators of senescence (alopecia, skin atrophy, kyphosis, osteoporosis, testicular atrophy, lipofuscin accumulation in renal proximal tubule and testicular Leydig cells, and apoptosis in the testis and intestine) are virtually absent in WT mice, detectable in B2 receptor–null mice, clearly apparent in mice diabetic because of a dominant mutation (Akita) in the Ins2 gene, and most obvious in Akita diabetic plus B2 receptor–null mice. Renal expression of several genes that encode proteins associated with senescence and/or apoptosis (TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor, p53, α-synuclein, and forkhead box O1) increases in the same progression. Concomitant increases occur in 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, point mutations and deletions in kidney mitochondrial DNA, and thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances in plasma, together with decreases in the reduced form of glutathione in erythrocytes. Thus, absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor increases the oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA damage, and many senescence-associated phenotypes already present in untreated Akita diabetic mice.
Masao Kakoki, Catherine M. Kizer, Xianwen Yi, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Hyung-Suk Kim, C. Robert Bagnell, Cora-Jean S. Edgell, Nobuyo Maeda, J. Charles Jennette, Oliver Smithies
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